Monday, July 16, 2007

Internet Country Codes

In addition to the more common internet extensions such as .COM, .ORG, there are a whole series of other codes that represent each country or territory in the world. Some of these, such as .US for United States, can only be used by sites that have a presence in that country (del.icio.us the social networking site uses the .us creatively make its spelling the same as the word delicious other country codes can be used by anyone . Some of the more popular ones, because the extension implies something other than the country are:

.pw for Palu but implies Personal Website

.tv for Tuvalu but implies Television

.ws for Western Samoa but implies Web Site

Each of the above is a sovereign nation but their country codes are becoming more common as the code represents something else in most people's minds.

Below is a list of country codes in alphabetical order by country or territory. For a more complete explanation of country codes and their history and use please see my article on this entitled Cyber Geography - Internet Country Codes Explained







Country or Territory

Afghanistan
Aland Islands
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ascension Island
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Republic of
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia/Hrvatska
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
East Timor
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
European Union
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern Territories
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Heard and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City State)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jersey
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Korea, Democratic People's Republic
Korea, Republic of
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macao
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of .
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Moldova, Republic of
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Palestinian Territory, Occupied
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Island
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Reunion Island
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Soviet Union (being phased out)
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
United States
United States Minor Outlying Islands
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands, British
Virgin Islands, U.S.
Wallis and Futuna Islands
Western Sahara
Yemen
Yugoslavia
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Country Code

.af
.ax
.al
.dz
.as
.ad
.ao
.ai
.aq
.ag
.ar
.am
.aw
.ac
.au
.at
.az
.bs
.bh
.bd
.bb
.by
.be
.bz
.bj
.bm
.bt
.bo
.ba
.bw
.bv
.br
.io
.bn
.bg
.bf
.bi
.kh
.cm
.ca
.cv
.ky
.cf
.td
.cl
.cn
.cx
.cc
.co
.km
.cg
.cd
.ck
.cr
.ci
.hr
.cu
.cy
.cz
.dk
.dj
.dm
.do
.tp
.ec
.eg
.sv
.gq
.er
.ee
.et
.eu
.fk
.fo
.fj
.fi
.fr
.gf
.pf
.tf
.ga
.gm
.ge
.de
.gh
.gi
.gr
gl –
.gd
.gp
.gu
.gt
.gg
.gn
.gw
.gy
.ht
.hm
.va
.hn
.hk
.hu
.is
.in
.id
.ir
.iq
.ie
.im
.il
.it
.jm
.jp
.je
.jo
.kz
.ke
.ki
.kp
.kr
.kw
.kg
.la
.lv
.lb
.ls
.lr
.ly
.li
.lt
.lu
.mo
.mk
.mg
.mw
.my
.mv
.ml
.mt
.mh
.mq
.mr
.mu
.yt
.mx
.fm
.md
.mc
.mn
.me
.ms
.ma
.mz
.mm
.na
.nl
.an
.nc
.nz
.ni
.ne
.ng
.nf
.mp
.no
.om
.pk
.pw
.ps
.pa
.pg
.py
.pe
.ph
.pn
.pl
.pt
.pr
.qa
.re
.ro
.ru
.rw
.sh
.kn
.lc
.pm
.vc
.ws
.sm
.st
.sa
.sn
.rs
.sc
.sl
.sg
.sk
.si
.sb
.so
.za
.gs
.su
.es
.lk
.sd
.sr
.sj
.sz
.se
.ch
.sy
.tw
.tj
.tz
.th
.tl
.tg
.tk
.to
.tt
.tn
.tr
.tm
.tc
.tv
.ug
.ua
.ae
.gb
.uk
.us
.um
.uy
.uz
.vu
.ve
.vn
.vg
.vi
.wf
.eh
.ye
.yu
.zm
.zw

Thursday, May 10, 2007

Money, Banking and the Federal Reserve

The attached video is a lecture from the Mises Institute (http://mises.org) explaining the differences between a monetary system based upon a 100% gold standard banking system and a fractional reserve banking system. The concepts discussed in the video are based upon the writings of the late econmist Murray Rothbard one of the outstanding economists of the Austrian School of Economics during the last half of the 20th century.

Thursday, January 25, 2007

I Do Not Give A’s in My Courses

Students who are enrolled in my ECN 200, ECN 201 and ECN 202 this semester, you did read the title correctly. To repeat, I Do Not Give A’s in My Courses. HOWEVER, before you rush to drop or add my courses, I do want to state that I Do RECORD and REPORT Grades for Students in My Courses and will record and report a grade of A for every student who earns one.

Before you dismiss this as an exercise in semantics, let me explain that, at the end of every semester, I receive requests from students asking me to give them an A for the course. A few years ago people would email or call me a week or less before the end of the semester asking for an extra project so they could bring their grade up. I always refused to give them an extra assignment feeling that this would be unfair to other students who would not have same opportunity as the student requesting the assignment to bring their grade up. Changing or modifying the rules in the waning hours of the semester is not only, not fair, but also trivializes the grading process. If I let anyone who comes to me at the last minute re-do work until they get their grade up to an A why bother reading and correcting tests and assignments all semester? Why not just give everyone a ‘A’ the first day of class and be done with it?

Apparently some students have come to believe that my job is to simply hand out A grades for the asking. In recent semesters I have been receiving emails the last 2 -3 days of the semester from a few students either informing me of their desperate need for an A and asking that I give them one, or, as one student boldly sent me an email a year or so ago which went something like this:

Mr Nugent,

This is (student's name).
(Name of second student) and I are in your ECN 20X class and I am writing to you to let you know that both (name of second student) and I will need an 'A' for this course.

This is important and I appreciate your taking care of this.

(Student's Name)


I am not Santa Claus. Since all three courses I teach are basically self-study, I prepare and make available all tests and assignments at the beginning of the course. My syllabus for each course is published on-line 2 – 4 weeks or more before the start of the semester and the syllabus contains a clear rubric explaining the grading process. I never use a curve for grading. Instead, I use a 1,000 point scale for grading as follows:

920 – 1000 points A
820 – 919 points B
740 – 819 points C
650 – 739 points D
Below 650 points F

Each test and assignment has a point value and the point values of all the tests and assignments add up to 1,000 points. Since I don’t use a curve in calculating the grades every student has an equal chance to get an ‘A’ and if everyone in the class EARNS 920 or more points I will gladly give everyone an 'A'.

In addition to having access to all the work at or near the start of the course (the mid-term and final exams are exceptions as they are closed book and not available until taken in the proctored test center), I include comments on all work I return in order to help the students better understand the material as well as being available on Monday evenings from 6 – 9 to meet with students.

Anyone who wants an ‘A’ can get one with some effort. The secret to getting an ‘A’ is to start now, at the beginning of the semester, complete the assignments and tests and submit them in a timely manner which will allow me to correct them, add comments and return then to you in time for you to take advantage of the comments as you work on the next assignments and tests. If you don’t understand something or are having problems with some concepts send me an email or come in to the NELC between 6 and 8 on a Monday evening and we will discuss it. This course is not that difficult if you do it a section at a time and seek help when you have problems. However, the content is too large and too complicated for the average student to read the book, do the assigned readings and, in the case of my telecourse students, watch all the videos and then complete all the assignments in a week or less and expect to pass, let alone earn an ‘A’.

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